Robotics is an interdisciplinary research area at the interface of computer science and engineering.Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics
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Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rassum’s Universal Robots (RUR) Robot in Czech is a word for worker or servan
A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks The first industrial robot: UNIMATE • 1954:
The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first robot company (1962).
1978: The Puma (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation with a General Motors design support 1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science departments.1995-present: Emerging applications in small robotics and mobile robots drive a second growth of start-up companies and research 2003: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers will launch toward Mars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars
The term robotics was introduced by writer Isaac Asimov. In his science fiction book I, Robot,published in 1950, he presented three laws of robotics:
1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Robotic manipulators used in manufacturing are examples of fixed robots. They can not move their base away from the work being done Mobile bases are typically platforms with wheels or tracks attached. Instead of wheels or tracks, some robots employ legs in order to move about.
Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas) Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see)
Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins, perform inspection, etc.
Part-Picking: Robot can handle In-Sight Vision Sensors work pieces that are randomly piled by using 3-D vision sensor. Since alignment operation, a special parts feeder, and an alignment pallete are not required, an automatic system can be constructed at low cost.